Tswana, or Setswana, is a language spoken in Southern Africa by about 4.5 million people. It is a Bantu language belonging to the Niger–Congo language family within the Sotho languages branch of Zone S (S.30), and it is closely related to the Northern and Southern Sotho languages, as well as the Kgalagadi language and the Lozi language.
Tswana is an official language and the lingua franca of Botswana, as it is spoken by almost 1.1 million of its inhabitants. However, the majority of Tswana speakers are found in South Africa, where 3.4 million people speak the language. Until 1994, South African Tswana people were notionally citizens of Bophuthatswana, one of the few bantustans that actually became reality as planned by the Apartheid regime. A small number of speakers are also found in Zimbabwe and Namibia, where 29,400 and 12,300 people speak the language, respectively.